Use of Antabuse in the treatment of alcoholism
Antabuse is a drug designed to treat alcoholism. The product is very popular, as it causes a complete aversion to alcoholic beverages and can be given to the patient without his knowledge. Let's find out in what cases it is recommended to take this drug and what are the anti-indications for treatment.
Description and composition of the drug
Antabuse is a drug in the form of tablets to treat alcohol dependence. The principle of its action lies in the method of sensitization - the production of intolerance to alcoholic products. After the beginning of the drug in the body begins to accumulate intermediate product, which is called acetaldehyde. Increased concentration leads to the feeling of a strong hangover even after taking a small amount of alcohol, which over time develops a sense of disgust to any alcoholic products.
The main active component of the drug Antabuse is Disulfiram, and its amount directly depends on the dosage of the tablet - 200 or 400 mg. In addition, the composition contains:
- Corn starch;
- Wine acid;
- Sodium hydrocarbonate;
- Colloidal silicon dioxide;
- Microcrystal cellulose;
- Magnesium stearat.
After the end of the course of treatment with the drug Antabuse, when taking alcoholic products, the addict will experience such side effects as:
- Facial hyperemia;
- Increased pressure;
- The tides.
This symptoms allow us to establish an investigative relationship and aversion to alcohol products.
The drug itself is absorbed by the body by 70-90%, and the process of absorption takes place in the intestines. Store the Antabuse in a dark place at a temperature of no more than 30 degrees. The duration of the suitability is 5 years from the date of release.
Instructions for use
Antabuse is distributed in the form of tablets containing the main active substance at dosages of 200 and 400 mg. They are taken orally, before dissolving in a glass of water. The dose to be taken is selected individually for each patient. On average, it is 200-500 mg of the drug up to 2 times a day. The course of treatment is also prescribed individually, and the duration of treatment, including the period of support, can reach the level of 3 years.
During the course, it is necessary to regularly conduct samples - every 1-2 days in inpatient or 3-4 days with outpatient treatment. This is done, as a rule, with regular vodka - 20-30 ml, and in the absence of a reaction the amount of alcohol increases by 10-20 ml. When passing the maintenance course, the daily dose of the drug is 150-200 mg.
Indications and contraception
The main indication for the use of the drug Antabuse is chronic alcoholism. Also, the drug can be taken in relapses and their warning.
It is strictly forbidden to take Antabuse to people with the following diseases and disorders:
- Intolerance of Disulfiram;
- Severe pathologies of the cardiovascular system;
- Violations of the perception organs (nitrite of auditory and optic nerves, glaucoma, etc.);
- Bronchial asthma, tuberculosis and emphysema of the lungs;
- Hepatic insufficiency;
- Violations of the organs responsible for blood-creation processes;
- Convulsions and epilepsy;
- Ulcerative disease and its recurrence;
- Mental illness and abnormalities;
- Kidney failure;
In some cases, The Antabuse can be taken only under the constant supervision of a specialist. These include:
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system in the compensation period;
- The presence of psychosis in history;
- An ulcer in remission; Residual phenomena in cerebral blood flow disorders;
- It is also forbidden to treat the drug during pregnancy. In old age, the same treatment should be done only with the permission of a specialist;
Possible side effects
Taking the drug Antabuse can be accompanied by various side effects. Some of them are a reaction to the Disulfiram. This category includes:
- The presence of a metallic taste in the mouth;
- Regular headaches;
- Patients with nickel eczema may develop hepatitis;
- Patients with colostomy may complain of an unpleasant smell;
- Disruption of brain functions, development of amnesia, general weakness and confusion;
- The development of optic nerve;
- Allergic reactions, manifested mainly on the skin.
In addition, the patient may have a reaction to disulfiram-ethyl alcohol, manifested in the form of:
- Heart rhythm disturbances;
- Swelling of the brain;
- Cardiovascular collapse;
- Myocardial infarction;
- Respiratory system failure;
- Neurological disorders.
Antabuse is a strong enough tool to fight alcoholism of various forms.
The drug prevents relapses even in particularly difficult situations, as it causes a fairly strong negative reaction of the body to alcoholic beverages. To conduct independent treatment is not strictly recommended, as Antabuse has a number of features and in some diseases its reception is prohibited at all. If necessary, it can be replaced with complete analogues, different in form of release and method of treatment. The same implantation pills are very popular, as they eliminate the need to monitor the schedule and mode.
It is worth noting that during the treatment to drink alcoholic beverages is strongly discouraged, except when it is necessary to pass routine tests. In other situations, there is a possibility of severe consequences for the body. If there are complex symptoms, such as mental disorders, the use of the drug should be stopped and consulta specialist to adjust the dose or replace the medication. You can't replace the drug yourself, as different components can conflict with each other, leading to a variety of unpredictable consequences.
Everyone who abuses alcohol, is familiar with this condition - alcohol intoxication. The level of intoxication depends on the dose of alcohol. Alcohol abuse leads to symptoms such as memory lapses, psychosis, gait shakyness. Regular drinking becomes the cause of alcohol dependence. The basis of all alcoholic beverages is ethanol, on the concentration of which depends on the strength of alcoholic beverages. Sucking, alcohol enters the bloodstream and spreads to all organs. Drinking leads to toxic damage to liver cells, kidneys, brain and spinal cord, digestive organs.
Types of alcohol intoxication
Depending on the amount of alcohol drunk, the following types of alcohol intoxication differ:
- Simple light intoxication
- Simple alcoholic intoxication of moderate severity
- Pathological alcohol intoxication
In a state of moderate severity, a person has distinguishable mental disorders, such as depressed mood (dysphoria), suspicion (paranoia). Man is seen conspiracies and machinations of enemies. Then the state of depression is replaced by gratuitous arousal, fun, turning into hysteria. In a hysterical state, a person is capable of violent scenes of self-flagellation, played out by despair, can demonstrate suicide attempts. Within 3 hours of taking a small amount of alcohol, he develops euphoria. If he does not find understanding in others, then there can be a sudden change of mood. Depression ensues.
The pathological condition is characterized by disorders such as psychopathy, explosive reaction, mania of persecution. A person in this state should be under the control of a psychiatrist, as he has become unpredictable. Alcoholic makes some understandable actions to him, loses orientation in space and time, forgets about loved ones, may not even remember how to call him.
Stages of alcohol intoxication
The state of intoxication, which occurs when drinking alcohol, is divided into 3 stages:
- Primary (light stage), in which the blood is present from 0.5- 1.4 ppm alcohol. A person is in a complacent mood, relaxed. In this state, he is not allowed to be behind the wheel of a vehicle, as well as engage in dangerous work that requires increased attention. He has weakened reactions, not a clear orientation in time and space;
- Average degree (in blood 1.5-2.4 ppm of alcohol). Complacency gives way to irritability, anger. Usually a person after drinking quickly falls asleep, and after waking up comes a hangover with signs of alcoholic intoxication: headache, feeling broken, lethargic, thirsty. Tachycardia and heart pain may appear;
Severe state of intoxication (in the blood of 2.5-3 ppm of alcohol and more). Disorientation in space reaches the maximum, a person cannot stand on his feet, move, as the muscles stop perceiving signals coming from the brain. There is a disconnection of consciousness. There may be a coma, paralysis of respiratory organs, vascular thrombosis. In this state, the drunkard has a complete loss of memory.
With the blood alcohol content of 3-5 ppm, toxic intoxication can result in death.
The mechanism of alcohol action on various organs;
Why alcohol causes intoxication?
What is the mechanism of this process?
- Facial redness and blue nose;
- Memory loss
- Uncertain movements, erratic gait;
- Thirst in a state of hangover (patients of the drug hospital say this: "Drink a lot, but you want to drink even more");
- Changes in heart rate and pressure;
- Reduced sexual activity.
All these signs of alcohol intoxication appear as a result of chemical and physical processes associated with alcohol ingestion.
The mechanism of its harmful action is as follows:
- Alcohol is a solvent. Dissolving the fat shell of cells, ethanol and the product of its decay acetaldehyde (an even more poisony substance) damage cells. There is so-called toxic intoxication;
- Alcohol mixes well with water, so it is easily absorbed in the stomach, quickly gets with blood in all the tissues of the body. The absorption of alcohol in the female body occurs faster, so the state of intoxication in women comes easier. A woman usually tries to hide her passion for alcohol. Therefore, the mechanism of healing female alcoholism is much more complicated than male. When drinking large doses of alcohol, they accumulate in tissues, especially in the brain. Fluid is needed to quickly remove them. Therefore, a person after alcohol intoxication appears a strong thirst;
- Alcohol increases blood clotting, causes the rapid appearance of blood clots. Blockage of the vessels of the brain leads to oxygen starvation (hypoxia). Therefore, a hangover after alcohol intoxication is accompanied by a severe headache. Hypoxia is characterized by a state of euphoria - unreasonable joyful, elated mood. This is the condition that occurs in a drinker as a result of alcohol intoxication;
As a result of thrombosis there are aneurysms (expansions) of vessels. Therefore, a frequent companion of alcohol intoxication is a hemorrhage in the brain. Small hemorrhages, formed by damage to the vessels in the nose, give it a blue color.
Symptoms of harmful effects of alcohol on the body
Under the influence of alcohol in the body there are pathological changes that cause the appearance of symptoms of alcohol poisoning:
- Destruction of liver cells leads to cirrhosis. Damage to the cells of the stomach mucosa is the cause of its ulceration;
- Damage to brain cells, its membranes causes memory loss, blurred vision, hallucinations and delirium, personality degradation;
- In a state of alcoholic intoxication, brain cells that control behavior are killed. As a result, the drunkard has depression, a sudden change of mood. Those around them notice that man has become cynical, indifferent and evil;
- Damage to cells in the occipital part of the brain, where the vestibular apparatus is located, leads to dizziness, nausea and vomiting;
- Damage to the genital cells leads to disorders in the reproductive organs. When these cells are destroyed, genes are damaged. Therefore, drunken conception is extremely dangerous and may turn out that the factor of drunkenness has caused deformities, mental and physical underdevelopment of offspring;
- Under the influence of alcohol, the central nervous system is destroyed, the cells of the spinal cord are damaged, which is expressed in the instability of the gait. Respiratory centers are suppressed.
- Diagnosis of alcohol intoxication
- In acute alcohol poisoning or in the aftermath of another drinking, a person gets to a neurological clinic, where a rapid diagnosis of his condition is carried out to determine the likelihood of cure for alcohol dependence;
- Alcoholic intoxication at various stages is characterized by symptoms, which establish the degree of severity, while assessing mental disorders, changes in behavior, character of speech, impaired gait, clarity of perception The surrounding reality;
- The state of intoxication and the degree of alcohol poisoning are determined by the behavior of a drunk person, the manifestation of aggressiveness and stubbornness, impaired concentration, incoherent speech, instability of gait;
- In addition, the state of intoxication and its stage can be established by external signs (change in the color of the face, relaxation of the body, reactions to external stimuli).